The ultra-short pulse laser has the potential in selective nano-structuring of thin-films layers by adjusting the wavelength of laser radiation depending on optical properties of the thin- film and the substrate that will solve its efficiency and stability issues in a one-step process, which is a promising methodology for thin-film solar cell fabrication that are fabricated through a sequence of vapor deposition and scribing processes. The review is performed to further understand the structure of the laser modified surface and the nature of dopants and defects in the crystalline grains. Using low temperature studies, the electronic levels of the dopant and its configuration with the lattice could be probed. The review is also explored the concept of using thin films of silicon as the laser irradiation substrate and for enhanced the visible and infrared absorption of films of silicon with thicknesses of few micrometer. Although the review is made good progress studying the properties of new material and incorporation into device but there are many unanswered questions and exciting avenues of research are also explored with femtosecond laser irradiated silicon.
Part of the book: Solar Cells