Adipocyte expansion, which involves adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASCs), is a critical process with implications in the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance associated with obesity. Impaired subcutaneous adipogenesis leads to dysfunctional, hypertrophic adipocytes, chronic low-grade inflammation, and peripheric insulin resistance. Alternatively, it has also been proposed that the preservation of the functionality of subcutaneous adipocyte precursors could contribute to some obese individuals remaining metabolically healthy. Very few studies evaluated the changes in the adipogenic differentiation for human subcutaneous ASCs following bariatric surgery. Weight loss after bariatric surgery involves extensive remodeling of adipose tissue, comprising the hyperplasia-hypertrophy balance. Subcutaneous ASCs may be implicated in the variations of bariatric outcomes, through a different restoration in their proliferative and adipogenic potential. Weight loss induced by bariatric surgery correlates to the subcutaneous ASC functions and could explain the variability of metabolic improvement. Limited research data are available to the present and these data support the importance of diagnosis of subcutaneous ASCs functions as predictors of metabolic improvement after bariatric surgery.
Part of the book: Bariatric Surgery