Increasing demand for food, feed, and fuels adds pressure on ecosystems through land use and land use change (LULUC), with greenhouse gas emissions among the most significant environmental impacts. Large regional variation in LULUC and indirect driving forces may not be adequately addressed by a one-size-fits-all approach that assigns equal LULUC emissions per unit of area, and by a focus on direct d(LU) LUC impacts only. Hence, our method integrates effects from international agricultural commodity trade as indirect emissions (iLULUC) of the demand of food and feed. In most countries, the majority of foods and feedstuffs (70% of global calories) are produced for the domestic market and the rest is exported and contributes to a hypothetical global pool of iLULUC emissions. Total LULUC emissions are calculated for individual countries, accounting for LULUC from increased domestic agricultural production for domestic consumption and for emissions imported from the global market’s iLULUC pool. Furthermore, we estimate consumption-based emission factors for specific product groups per country. Results show that vegetable oils, oil crops, and cereals account for the majority of global LULUC emissions and iLULUC results derived with the presented method cannot be compared directly to dLULUC results; however, their orders of magnitude are similar.
Part of the book: Land Use