Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most aggressive cancers worldwide and is known to develop through a stepwise process involving the accumulation of several genetic and epigenetic alterations. Furthermore, numerous studies have highlighted the significant role that certain epigenetic enzymes play in CRC pathogenesis, particularly those that govern chromatin components in the promoter regions of tumor suppressors and oncogenes. Here, we delineate the relationship between CRC-associated epigenetic marks, their modifying enzymes, and the classification of CRC into distinct molecular pathways or subtypes. Moreover, we discuss some of the most prominent methyltransferases, demethylases, acetyltransferases, and deacetylases, which have been targeted for preclinical and clinical CRC treatment. Notably, inhibitors against these epigenetic enzymes are a promising new class of anticancer drugs, with several obtaining Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval for the treatment of blood and solid tumors. By highlighting the epigenetic molecular pathways leading to CRC development as well as providing an update on current CRC epigenetic therapies, this chapter sheds fresh insight into new and emerging avenues for future therapeutics.
Part of the book: Advances in the Molecular Understanding of Colorectal Cancer
The proinflammatory transcription factor nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) has emerged as a central player in inflammatory responses and tumor development since its discovery three decades ago. In general, aberrant NF-κB activity plays a critical role in tumorigenesis and acquired resistance to chemotherapy. This aberrant NF-κB activity frequently involves several post-translational modifications of NF-κB, including phosphorylation. In this chapter, we will specifically cover the phosphorylation sites reported on the p65 subunit of NF-κB and their relationship to cancer. Importantly, phosphorylation is catalyzed by different kinases using adenosine triphosphate (ATP) as the phosphorus donor. These kinases are frequently hyperactive in cancers and thus may serve as potential therapeutic targets to treat different cancers.
Part of the book: Adenosine Triphosphate in Health and Disease