Approximately 80–90% of women experience some symptoms in the premenstrual period at some point in their reproductive years. Teenagers often present with moderate to severe symptoms, while women in the fourth decade of life appear to have worse symptoms with the severity of the disease worsening with increasing age up until menopause. Obesity and smoking have also been identified as risk factors. Symptoms could be physical, psychological, emotional, environmental and/or behavioral and affect the ability to perform normal daily activities as well as adversely affect interpersonal relationships. Though several theories have been propounded, the exact cause of premenstrual syndrome is unknown. Management of this disorder requires a multi-disciplinary approach involving the general practitioner, the general gynecologist or a gynecologist with a special interest in PMS, a mental health professional (psychiatrist, clinical psychologist or counselor), physiotherapist and dietician.
Part of the book: Menstrual Cycle