Sinonasal cancers are rare tumors constitute 3% of head and neck cancers. These include malignancies of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses (maxillary sinus, ethmoid sinuses, frontal sinus and sphenoid sinus). Patients are often asymptomatic until late in the course of their disease. Tumors of the maxillary sinus are more common than those of the ethmoid sinus or nasal cavity. The workup for patients with suspected paranasal sinus tumors includes complete head and neck CT/MRI with contrast. FDG-PET/CT may be considered in the workup of patients with clinically apparent stage III or IV disease. The most common histology for these tumors is squamous cell carcinoma, others reported includes adenocarcinoma, esthesioneuroblastoma, minor salivary gland tumors, or sinonasal neuroendocrine carcinoma [SNEC]). Surgical resection for all T stages (except T4b, any N) followed by postoperative therapy remains a cornerstone of treatment. However, definitive RT or systemic therapy/RT is recommended for T4b, any N. Locoregional control and incidence of distant metastasis are dependent on T stage, N stage, and tumor histology.
Part of the book: Challenging Issues on Paranasal Sinuses
Central nervous system tumours are the most common solid tumours and second most common malignancy in pediatric age group. They are the leading cause of cancer related morbidity and mortality. It accounts for 3.5% of all deaths in the 1–14 years age group. Childhood central nervous system (CNS) tumors differ significantly from adult brain tumors in reference to their sites of origin, clinical presentation, tendency to disseminate early, histological features and their biological behaviour. Supratentorial tumors are more common in infants and children up to 3 years of age and again after age 10, whereas between ages 4 and 10 infratentorial tumors are more common. The initial workup of patients with brain tumors must include a complete history, physical examination, imaging and biopsy confirmation of primary. The management of pediatric brain tumours is important due to their high incidence, challenging aspects of surgery and high mortality. Many CNS malignancies, which were once universally fatal are now curable with multimodality approaches that integrate surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy. In this chapter, we will discuss these issues in detail and summarize the ongoing efforts to reduce the morbidity and mortality in pediatric CNS tumours.
Part of the book: Current Cancer Treatment
Cancer immunotherapy is one of the most upcoming treatment strategies emerging as a fascinating option in the management of advanced gynecological malignancies. The development of immune-based antitumor approaches has led to safer treatment options that give fruitful results in these malignancies. In this chapter we are focusing on immune-based treatment in the management of gynecological cancers like cervical cancer, endometrial cancer, ovarian cancer, and vaginal and vulvar cancer. We are also discussing the clinical studies that have been conducted or are currently underway which are exploring these immune strategies that are developing as a logical overture for the treatment of advanced cancers including gynecological cancers.
Part of the book: Gynaecological Malignancies