Bone grafts have been used by surgeons for a variety of purposes including filling bone cysts, reconstruction of bone loss after trauma and tumor resections and osteogenesis in fractures with union problems. In recent years, a significant increase in the use of bone grafts for reconstructive purposes has necessitated bone grafts of much greater shape and size. Although the use of avascular bone transfers is becoming more preferred due to benefits such as good osteogenic properties, resistance to infection and hypertrophy over time, nonvascular bone grafts have a wide range of use in fracture repair and reconstruction, with new developments in bone morphogenetic protein and stem cell support areas resulting in the proliferation of bone banks. Bone grafts are evaluated in three main groups as follows: autografts, allografts and xenografts. We have compiled the types of bone grafts.
Part of the book: Bone Grafting
Biochemical markers in osteoarthritis are molecules that occur during the physiological cycle of the bone and cartilage matrix, and they can be detected in body fluids. The most important goal of marker metrology in osteoarthritis is that cartilage damage can be recognized at the early stage when it has not yet been detected radiologically. In addition to early recognition, follow-up of disease activity, determination of disease severity, prediction of prognosis, and evaluation of response to treatment are other purposes of marker measurement. Type II collagen is the most important structural element of joint cartilage and is relatively specific to hyaline cartilage. The main event in osteoarthritis pathophysiology is the damage of the Type II collagen network. For this reason, researches aimed at detecting osteoarthritis-specific and specific biochemical markers have focused on Type II collagen. CTX-II is currently the most investigated and promising biomarker in relation to osteoarthritis clinic.
Part of the book: Osteoarthritis Biomarkers and Treatments
The knee joint is the largest and most complicated joint in the human body. Bone structures, capsules, menisci, and ligaments provide static stability in the knee joint and are responsible for dynamic stabilization of the muscles and tendons. Menisci are fibrocartilage structures that cover two-thirds of the tibial plateau joint surface. The main functions of the meniscus are load sharing and loading of the tibiofemoral joint, shock absorption, helping to feed the cartilage by facilitating dissociation of the joint fluid, and contributing to the joint fit by increasing joint stability and joint contact surface area. Menisci are frequently injured structures. The incidence of acute meniscal tears is 60 per 100,000. It is more common in males. Trauma-related tears are common in patients under 30 years of age, whereas degenerative complex tears increase in patients over 30 years of age. There may not be a significant trauma story, especially in degenerative meniscus tears. They are sports traumas that come to the fore in the etiology of meniscus tears. It is the football that has the greatest risk of creating a meniscus lesion, followed by athletics, American football, and skiing. There is an indication for repair in peripheral ruptures where blood flow is excessive. In the central rupture where blood is not present, the treatment is meniscectomy. In this review, we compiled the diagnosis, etiology, and treatment methods of the meniscal tears.
Part of the book: Meniscus of the Knee