Assessment of the role and investigation particularities (comparative and complementary aspects, hierarchies, preferential indication) adapted to the context of a global cardiovascular (CV) evaluation, including clinical elements, non-invasive and invasive imagistic examination in order to estimate the cardiovascular risk (CVR) and to define the revascularization therapeutic strategy in patients with critical leg ischemia (CLI). Complete and accessible evaluation involves accessible means of investigation like clinical exam, electrocardiogram, cardiac biomarkers, arterial, cardiac, and carotid ultrasonography which could be affordable in all cardiovascular departments. Non-invasive stress tests, coronary and arterial cervical angiography imaging leads in selected cases and where is possible to the identification of significant coronary and/or carotid lesions potential responsible for cardiac and cerebrovascular events after vascular surgery. The evaluation algorithm allows better risk stratification of patients with CLI in high and intermediate CVR. The “poly-arterial” status in patients with CLI changes the intervention management with a more intensive pre-operative medical treatment, while the coronary and the carotid arteries revascularization might precedes the peripheral arterial revascularization procedures, in order to reduce the CV risk status.
Part of the book: Peripheral Arterial Disease
Amyloidosis represents a heterogeneous group of disorders caused by amyloid fibril deposition in the extracellular space in different organs. Among the many types of amyloidosis cardiac involvement occurs almost exclusively with immunoglobulin light chain amyloidosis (AL amyloidosis) or transthyretin amyloidosis (ATTR amyloidosis). When present cardiac amyloidosis (CA) has a significant impact on disease prognosis. The typical clinical presentation in CA is that of a restrictive cardiomyopathy. Clinical suspicion of CA is based on clinical, laboratory and electrocardiographic findings. The diagnosis is confirmed using echocardiography, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, biopsy, and/or bone scintigraphy. A precise definition of amyloidosis type is essential for choosing the specific treatment for this condition. Treatment of CA has two components: general treatment of congestive HF, and specific treatment of the underlying protein misfolding disorder.
Part of the book: Cardiomyopathy