Cereals are a rich source of vitamins, minerals, carbohydrates, fats, oils and protein, making them the world’s most important source of nutrition. The influence of rising global population, as well as the emergence and spread of disease, has the major impact on cereal production. To meet the demand, there is a pressing need to increase cereal production. Optimal seed development is a key agronomical trait that contributes to crop yield. The seed development and maturation is a complex process that includes not only embryo and endosperm development, but also accompanied by huge physiological, biochemical, metabolic, molecular and transcriptional changes. This chapter discusses the growth of cereal seed and highlights the novel biological insights, with a focus on transgenic and new molecular breeding, as well as biotechnological intervention strategies that have improved crop yield in two major cereal crops, primarily wheat and rice, over the last 21 years (2000–2021).
Part of the book: Cereal Grains