Chronic wounds represent an important challenge for wound care and are universally colonized by bacteria. These bacteria can form biofilm as a survival mechanism that confers the ability to resist environmental stressors and antimicrobials due to a variety of reasons, including low metabolic activity. Additionally, the exopolymeric substance (EPS) contained in biofilm acts as a mechanical barrier to immune system cells, leading to collateral damage in the surrounding tissue as well as chronic inflammation, which eventually will delay healing of the wound. This chapter will discuss current knowledge on biofilm formation, its presence in acute and chronic wounds, how biofilm affects antibiotic resistance and tolerance, as well as the wound healing process. We will also discuss proposed methods to eliminate biofilm and improve wound healing despite its presence, including basic science and clinical studies regarding these matters.
Part of the book: Wound Healing