It has long been established that a diet rich in fresh fruits, vegetables, seeds, grains and legumes and antioxidants, and other beneficial compounds may help prevent various human diseases. However, diet is not a cure for treatment of severe diseases, but it may help prevent some ailments, and it can help the body overcome the effects of conventional treatments. Natural compounds not only serve as a drug or template for drugs but also, in many instances, had been a source of discovery of novel biology that provided better understanding of target and pathway involved in the disease processes. In addition, drugs derived from natural compounds work better for patients than do drugs manufactured synthetically. Approximately, 40% of drugs in the pipeline and 70% of synthetic therapeutic molecules are plagued with poor solubility, oral bioavailability, and delivery. Drugs with poor solubility encounter limited transport during oral administration because of low concentration gradient between the gut and the blood vessels. To increase body fluid saturation solubility of poorly soluble drug, new delivery methods need to be developed using natural dietary plant metabolites.
Part of the book: Nanomedicines
The emergence of biogenic nanomaterials as novel antimicrobials introduces a new paradigm in human health care. Based on the recent reports of the World Health Organization, infectious diseases pose one of the greatest health challenges. Increased multi-drug resistance prevalence among human pathogens, due to the inefficiency of commercially available antimicrobial drugs in the market is a great threat to humans. The poor solubility, stability and side effects of the antibacterial therapy prompted the researchers to explore new innovative strategies for developing new antimicrobials. Recently, biogenic nanoparticles have proven their effectiveness against multidrug-resistant (MDR) pathogens as an alternative to conventional antibiotics. Biogenic nanoparticles such as silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and Zinc Oxide nanoparticles (ZnONPs) are easy to produce, biocompatible, provide enhanced uptake and are eco-friendly. Moreover, the capping of the biogenic nanocrystals provides an active surface for interaction with biological components, facilitated by free active surface functional groups to enhance their efficacy and delivery. Inorganic nanocrystals (AgNPs and ZnONPs) are effective both as nano-bactericides and as nanocarriers against sensitive and MDR) pathogens. The present chapter focuses on the utilization of the recent nanosystems to combat drug resistance in human pathogens. Nanomedicine represents a new generation of potiential antimicrobial candidates capable of combating the drug resistance in various pathogenic organisms.
Part of the book: Materials at the Nanoscale