During cancer immune editing, the immune system shapes tumor fate in three phases through the activation of innate and adaptive immune mechanisms. After the elimination and equilibrium phase, the escape phase represents the final phase in which immunologically sculpted tumors begin to grow progressively. In this chapter, we will discuss which efforts are made to restore the balance in favor of the immune system making use of dendritic cells (DCs). The first approach is adoptive cell transfer, in which autologous DCs are generated and activated ex vivo. Secondly, we will discuss attempts in which pro-inflammatory or pro-migratory factors are delivered to attract and activate DCs in situ. Both strategies have the general goal to activate and mature DCs able to induce a robust tumor-specific T cell response. In addition, this chapter will discuss the clinical impact of DC-based therapies in cancer treatment focusing on the safety, feasibility, immunological responses, and clinical outcome.
Part of the book: Dendritic Cells