The modern level of knowledge development in the field of fundamental sciences makes it possible to reliably investigate the processes of evolution. The purpose of our research was to determine the need to establish the existing evolutionary transformations in resistance to abiotic and biotic stress factors of the biosphere in a grape plant, which may be natural for all horticulture crops, and on the other hand, based on the postulate of natural and experimental evolution, to prove the processes of natural evolution as a result of experimental breeding. The results obtained in the study of particular issues of genetics of grapes, based on the existence of general biological regularities, can be prolonged for interpretation, with reference to other horticulture crops. We studied the genetics of grapes, in particular crossability, the inheritance of signs and characteristics, the establishment of regularities in the display of selection value, and heterosis, allowing us to formulate the principles of modeling a new variety. Investigating the process of creating grape varieties that are resistant to biotic factor, it was suggested to consider it from the point of view of the coevolution of the plant and pathogen.
Part of the book: Horticultural Crops
In the context of the global climate change, manifested in a rapid increase in environment temperature and a constant increase in freshwater deficiency, the problem of breeding new grapevine cultivars that would correspond to the present-day biosphere conditions emerged. The endurance of native cultivars to adverse soil and climatic conditions and their drought tolerance are of particular value in development of generative breeding. It is known that most of the Crimean native cultivars have a functionally female type of flower, low resistance to biotic environmental factors that affects the stability of fertilization, yield and directly depends on the climatic conditions of cultivation. The adaptive ability of Crimean native grape cultivars is possible to increase by method of hybridization. So, the specific objectives of the study include, definition of agrobiological parameters of native grape cultivars of Crimean region; assessment of vegetative and generative potential; calculation of the profitability of cultivation of Crimean native grape cultivars in comparison with the classic cultivars. The result of the research was the selection of genotypes from the group of native cultivars - traits donors and obtaining hybrids of the first generation, which are improved analogs of the Crimean native cultivars.
Part of the book: Grapes and Wine