Congestion, lack of accessibility, social equity, air pollution, as well as rising CO2 emissions are some of the key issues urban transport policymakers face. Motorised two-wheelers and their accessibility benefits are often ignored in this discourse or seen as undesirable for reasons of pollution, noise, road safety and driving behaviour. Cycling, on the other hand, is viewed positively, yet faces substantial social and political barriers, and is suitable mainly for shorter trips. This chapter explores the role electric two-wheelers (including pedelecs, e-mopeds and e-scooters) can play in urban vehicle ecosystems, using the sustainable mobility paradigm. Compared to traditional transport planning, this paradigm has a stronger focus on aspects such as accessibility, people, streets as a space, city liveability, as well as environmental impacts. The analysis is based on existing literature in the academic and policy realm and a comparison with other transport modes including motorcycles, bicycles, public transport and cars. It includes cases from China, Vietnam and the Netherlands, each of which have distinct mobility system characteristics. Possible policy instruments to facilitate further deployment of electric two-wheelers are discussed as well. This chapter thereby helps filling a gap in transport, sustainable development and climate change mitigation literature, in which electric two-wheelers have not been well covered to date.
Part of the book: Sustainable Cities