Nanochemistry has evolved as an important part in catalysis for both academic as well as industrial research. Traditional homogeneous catalytic systems have gained significant importance due to the molecular level analysis of their catalytic activity and the excellent homogeneity of the catalysts and the reactants. However, removal of the catalysts from the reaction mixture without product contamination requires tedious purification steps. With increasing ecological and economical demands towards sustainable chemical synthesis, the recovery and reuse of catalysts has been an important factor. In this drive, various heterogeneous catalytic systems including mesoporous materials, solid catalysts, organometallics, noble-metal nanoparticles, etc. have been developed for photochemical and electrochemical conversion, environmental remediation as well as catalyst for important chemical transformations. Carbon nanomaterial specially graphene oxide and carbon dots have received significant research importance due to their large scale availability, easy surface modification, non-toxicity and other surface properties. Here, we review the continuous progress in the development of graphene based materials and their catalytic activity in organic synthesis.
Part of the book: Graphene Oxide