ZnO, which has high electrochemical stability, wide band gap energy, large excitonic binding energy, intense near band excitonic emission and is non-toxic, have potential applications in all fields. This chapter reviews the structural, optical and electrical properties of undoped and doped ZnO thin films. The type of doping highly influences the structural properties such as grain size, texture coefficient and unit cell properties. The dopants of transition metal and nonmetals have unique characteristics. Moreover, mono-doping and co-doping encourage this research. The optical properties such as bandgap, charge carrier concentrations and transmissions of the films depend on the doping as well as the preparation condition of the films. The effect of doping on its properties is also discussed.
Part of the book: 2D Materials
Some of the problems in quantum mechanics can be exactly solved without any approximation. Some of the exactly solvable problems are discussed in this chapter. Broadly there are two main approaches to solve such problems. They are (i) based on the solution of the Schrödinger equation and (ii) based on operators. The normalized eigen function, eigen values, and the physical significance of some of the selected problems are discussed.
Part of the book: Quantum Mechanics