Eco-friendly biopesticides based on essential oils (EOs) appear to be a complementary or alternative method to chemically synthesized insecticides in integrated pest management programs. They have the advantage of reducing the adverse effects of chemical insecticides on human health and environment and at the same time increasing horticultural crop productivity and yield. Plant EOs exhibit toxic, repellent, and antifeedant effects on different insect species. However, the main problem in using plant EOs as biopesticides under field conditions is their chemical instability in the presence of air, light, moisture, and high temperatures which lead to the rapid evaporation and degradation of their active constituents. Incorporation of EOs into controlled-release nanoformulations may contribute to solve problems associated with their application; this kind of formulation is expected to be more effective than the bulk (free) substance.
Part of the book: Horticultural Crops