Please see CV
Please see CV
Dioxins and furans are classified highly contaminating toxic chemicals having serious effect on human health. This chapter begins with a brief summary on the formation, occurrence and toxicity of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) with their potential health effects, mitigation measures of these harmful compounds. Depending on position of chlorine atoms on aromatic rings, about 210 chemically different PCDD/PCDFs known as “congener” are present in the environment. The expected biological activity of PCDD/PCDFs is expressed relatively to the activity of 2,3,7,8-tetrachloro-dibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) using a common metric. TCDD is the most biologically potent among all the congeners. Toxic level of a mixture of PCDD/PCDFs is therefore expressed in TCDD toxicity equivalents or TEQs. There are two mechanisms for the formation of dioxins and furans, one from precursors and other by de novo synthesis. PCDD/PCDFs followed a mechanism which uses macromolecule carbon and chlorine in fly ash to form dioxins at low temperature. There are various sources of the formation of PCDD/PCDFs like hospital waste incinerators, industrial combustion and burning of domestic waste. Dioxins and furans have very harmful effects on the human health causing cancer, diabetes, neurotoxicity, immunotoxicity and chloracne. It has been experienced that hybrid method secure a sustainable future for the incinerators and PCDD/PCDFs removal technologies. This chapter will help the researchers and practitioners for better understanding and decision making for future research to establish a sustainable PCDD/PCDFs free life.
Part of the book: Air Pollution
Air of cities especially in the developing parts of the world is turning into a serious environmental interest. The air pollution is because of a complex interaction of dispersion and emission of toxic pollutants from manufactories. Air pollution caused due to the introduction of dust particles, gases, and smoke into the atmosphere exceeds the air quality levels. Air pollutants are the precursor of photochemical smog and acid rain that causes the asthmatic problems leading into serious illness of lung cancer, depletes the stratospheric ozone, and contributes in global warming. In the present industrial economy era, air pollution is an unavoidable product that cannot be completely removed but stern actions can reduce it. Pollution can be reduced through collective as well as individual contributions. There are multiple sources of air pollution, which are industries, fossil fuels, agro waste, and vehicular emissions. Industrial processes upgradation, energy efficiency, agricultural waste burning control, and fuel conversion are important aspects to reducing pollutants which create the industrial air pollution. Mitigations are necessary to reduce the threat of air pollution using the various applicable technologies like CO2 sequestering, industrial energy efficiency, improving the combustion processes of the vehicular engines, and reducing the gas production from agriculture cultivations.
Part of the book: Environmental Emissions