A low temperature plasma nitriding process has become one of the most promising methods to make solid-solution hardening by the nitrogen super-saturation, being free from toxicity and energy consumption. High-density radio-frequency and direct current (RF/DC) plasma nitriding process was applied to synthesize the nitrided AISI304 microstructure and to describe the essential mechanism of inner nitriding in this low temperature nitriding (LTN) process. In case of the nitrided AISI304 at 673 K for 14.4 ks, the nitrided layer thickness became 66.5 μm with the surface hardness of 1550 HV and the surface nitrogen content of 9 mass%. This inner nitriding process was governed by the synergetic interrelation among the nitrogen super-saturation, the lattice expansion, the phase transformation, the plastic straining, the microstructure refinement, and the acceleration of nitrogen diffusion. When this interrelation is sustained during the nitriding process, the original austenitic microstructure is homogeneously nitrided to have fine-grained microstructure with the average size of 0.1 μm. Once this interrelation does not work anymore, the homogeneous microstructure changed itself to the heterogeneous one. The plastic straining took place in the selected coarse grains so that the parts of them were only refined. This plastic localization accompanied with the localized phase transformation.
Part of the book: Stainless Steels and Alloys
CVD-diamond coatings were posttreated by plasma oxidation to recycle an original WC (Co) mother tool substrate for recoating and reuse. A developed RF/DC plasma oxidation system was stated together with a hollow cathode device to intensify the oxygen ion and electron densities and with a quantitative plasma diagnosis equipment. Plasma oxidation ashing conditions were optimized by this quantitative diagnosis toward the perfect ashing of diamond films with less residuals and less tool edge damage. Geometric effect of tool teeth structure on this ashing process was discussed by in situ monitoring of plasmas. Engineering solution of this ashing process was proposed for industrial applications.
Part of the book: Chemical Vapor Deposition for Nanotechnology
The pico- and femtosecond laser micromachining has grown up as a reliable tool for precise manufacturing and electronic industries to make fine drilling and machining into hard metals and ceramics as well as soft plastic and to form various nano- and microtextures for improvement of surface functions and properties in products. The ultrashort-pulse laser machining systems were developed to describe the fine microdrilling and microtexturing behavior for various materials. Accuracy in circularity and drilled depth were evaluated to discuss the effect of substrate materials on the laser microdrilling. Accuracy in unit geometry and alignment was also discussed for applications. A carbon base mold substrate was micromachined to transcribe its microtextures to transparent plastics and oxide glasses. Three practical examples were introduced to demonstrate the effectiveness of nano-/microtexturing on the improvement of microjoinability, the reduction in friction and wear of mechanical parts and tools, and the surface property control. The fast-rate laser machinability, the spatial resolution in laser microtexturing as well as the laser micromanufacturing capacity were discussed to aim at the future innovations in manufacturing toward the sustainable society.
Part of the book: Micromachining
Austenitic stainless steels have been widely utilized in industries, infrastructures, housing structures, kitchen components, and medical tools. Higher hardness and strength as well as more improvement of wear and corrosion toughness are often required in the industrial and medical applications. Fine-grained stainless steel (FGSS) provides a solution to increase the strength without loss of ductility and toughness. Deeper research and development in manufacturing of FGSS is required to make full use of its properties toward its applications in industries and medicals. First, its mechanical properties and microstructure is introduced as a basic knowledge of FGSS with comparison to the normal stainless steels. Mechanical and laser machinability of FGSS is stated and discussed to finish the products in seconds. Its performance in metal forming and diffusion bonding is explained to explore its applications in third. Its surface treatment and tooling is discussed to describe the grain-size effect on the low temperature plasma nitriding and to demonstrate its effectiveness in die-making in forth. Finally, every aspect in manufacturing of FGSS sheets and solids is summarized as a conclusion.
Part of the book: Engineering Steels and High Entropy-Alloys
Austenitic stainless steel type AISI304 sheets and plates as well as fine-grained type AISI316 (FGSS316) substrates and wires were employed as a work material in the intense rolling, the piercing and the plasma nitriding. AISI304 sheet after intense rolling had textured microstructure in the rolling direction. Crystallographic state changed itself to have distorted polycrystalline state along the shearing plane by piercing, with the strain induced phase transformation. FGSS316 substrates were plasma nitrided at 623 K for 14.4 ks to have two-phase fine nanostructure with the average grain size of 100 nm as a surface layer with the thickness of 30 μm. FGSS316 wires were also plasma nitrided at the same conditions to form the nitrided surface down to the depth of 30 μm. This nitrided wire was further uniaxially loaded in tensile to attain more homogeneously nitrided surface nano-structure and to form the austenitic and martensitic fiber structure aligned in the tensile direction. Each crystallographic structure intrinsic to metals and metallic alloys was tailored to have preferable micro−/nano-structured cells by metal forming and nitrogen supersaturation. The crystallographic change by metal forming in a priori and posterior to nitriding was discussed to find out a new way for materials design.
Part of the book: Electron Crystallography