The indiscriminate use of chemical pesticides to control pests and diseases without technical assistance instead of solving the pest problems has caused environmental damage, agriculture productivity, and human health. Pesticides can remain for several years in the soil, being able to contaminate rivers and lagoons, animals of shepherding and foods. Besides, in recent years, pests have shown an alarmingly resistance over several pesticides. This makes necessary the use of other natural sources of pesticides that could be degraded avoiding the resistance problem. One of the main sources analyzed is the neem (Azadirachta indica) due to its complex content of bioactive triterpenoids. However, cellulosic structures of cell wall conditioned the extraction of these components, acting as physical barrier and avoiding its complete extraction. This chapter included a review of the consequences of the use of chemical pesticides to control pests spread in plant and animals and its repercussions on the environment. Moreover, the advantages of the use of food-grade enzyme preparations as an alternative to elaborate an extract of neem without organic solvents are exposed. The results are promissory and could improve the acaricide and repellent effects of the neem extracts over pests, reducing the negative effect caused by chemical pesticides.
Part of the book: Soil Contamination and Alternatives for Sustainable Development
The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of Brucella spp. in a goat flock and the seroconversion of three groups of animals vaccinated with Rev-1 (Brucella melitensis), RB51, and RB51-SOD (Brucella abortus) to estimate the level of protection conferred on susceptible females. Seventy-two animals were used by group. Goats were older than 3 months, seronegative to brucellosis, not vaccinated previously, and kept within positive flocks. Vaccinated animals received 2 mL of product subcutaneously in the neck region. The first block was injected with Rev-1; the second received RB51, and the third group was injected with RB51-SOD. Follow-up sampling was performed at 30, 60, 90, and 365 days postvaccination. The general prevalence of brucellosis for the three groups was 1.2% (95%CI:0.5–2.7). The seroconversion rate by day 30 after vaccination was 77.7% (95%CI:61.9–88.2) for goats vaccinated with Rev-1. At 365 days post vaccination, the percentage of seropositive goats declined to 13.8% (95%CI:6.0–28.6). At day 365 after vaccination, 2.7% (95%CI:0.4–14.1) and 5.5% (95%CI:1.5–18.1) of animals vaccinated with RB51 and RB51-SOD, respectively, became positive. Results show that the seroconversion induced by Brucella abortus RB51 and RB51-SOD vaccines is lower than that by Brucella melitensis Rev-1.
Part of the book: New Insight into Brucella Infection and Foodborne Diseases