The aging of the population is an unprecedented world phenomenon. Numerous physiological changes occur with aging, and one of the most common situations is postural imbalance and, consequently, the occurrence of falls. Balancing is the process of controlling the body’s center of mass with respect to its base of support and depends on the integration of sensory systems (visual, vestibular, and somatosensory) with the central nervous system (CNS). Each system is prone to deterioration with advancing age and is influenced by age-related diseases and use of some types of medications and polypharmacy. As with any good clinical evaluation, a detailed history and a thorough physical examination are essential to evaluate postural balance. The evaluation of balance must be done with tests that are quick and with relatively little equipment and training. The improvement of postural balance can be done in many ways, and exercises are a type of this treatment and can be done with video games or a treadmill, for example.
Part of the book: Geriatric Medicine and Gerontology