Thin film technology, based on different chemical and physical methods, enabled miniaturization, co-integration, and amelioration of the performance of the devices. Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) systems ensure high productivity and demonstrate excellent film uniformity (up to 12 inch wafers) and repeatability with high throughput for a variety of different films of oxides, nitrides, metals, chalcogenides, etc. In the last two decades, direct liquid injection (DLI)-CVD enabling the usage of solid and liquid precursors has proven to be one of the most versatile CVD process to meet industrial requirements. In this chapter, the requirements to the precursors suitable for DLI-CVD, different classes of available precursors, and models used to describe the evaporation are overviewed. Then, different liquid delivery devices used in DLI-CVD such as capillary tubes, syringes, aerosol delivery systems, and valves are reviewed in detail.
Part of the book: Chemical Vapor Deposition for Nanotechnology