Neurodegenerative diseases present substantial clinical challenges. Their processes have been linked with various genetic causes, including mutations of genes encoding proteins associated with mitochondrial dynamics. Biallelic mutations in SLC25A46 have been identified as novel causes of a wide spectrum of neurological diseases with recessive inheritance, including optic atrophy, Charcot-Marie-Tooth neuropathy (CMT) type 2A neuropathy, Leigh syndrome, progressive myoclonic ataxia, and lethal congenital pontocerebellar hypoplasia. SLC25A46 (solute carrier family 25 member 46) is a membrane transit protein that is expressed in the mitochondrial outer membrane where it plays a major role in mitochondrial dynamics and cristae maintenance. This chapter presents recent findings on: (1) the clinical heterogeneity of SLC25A46-related neuropathies; (2) the SLC25A46 mutation spectrum and associated genotype-phenotype correlation; and (3) pathophysiological functions of SLC25A46 as characterized in cells and mouse models. A better understanding of the etiology of SLC25146-linked diseases will elucidate therapeutic perspectives.
Part of the book: Recent Advances in Neurodegeneration