Tuberculosis continues to be an epidemic disease worldwide especially in the developing countries. One of the main reasons behind the continuation of this epidemic is latent tuberculosis infection. Globally, 2–3 billion people have latent TB infection. Prevention of reactivation TB is now considered as one of the important strategies of TB prevention and is one of the main pillars for the WHO “End TB Strategy.” Biostatistical modeling has shown that protecting 8% of persons with latent tuberculosis every year can bring down the global incidence rate by 14 times by 2050 as compared to that in 2013 without any other intervention. One of the most effective strategies recommended by WHO has been Isoniazid preventive therapy for 6–9 months. Chemoprophylaxis for LTBI can prevent 60–90% of reactivation TB. Isoniazid preventive therapy is considered safe; however, it can occasionally result in significant adverse effects like hepatitis and rarely mortality. In conclusion, chemoprophylaxis of LTBI can be considered an important intervention being done to curb the epidemic of TB especially in high-risk group and reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with active TB disease.
Part of the book: Advances in HIV and AIDS Control