The term ‘osseointegration’ was first defined by Branemark in 1952. Osseointegration means direct connection between implant surface and live bone cells. At the beginning, the original protocol for installation of the dental implants was 6–8 months after extraction. After installation of the implant, waiting period for osseointegration time was 6 months for upper jaw and 3 months for the lower jaw. In 1990s, implant placement was mostly performed in 100% healed bone tissue. Today this approach has lost its dominance due to the evolution of the implant shape and surface features. Various studies show that immediate implantation has a 90–100% success in survival rate. However, primary stability of the implant at the fresh extraction socket still has a priority. Particularly after extraction of single root teeth implant, installation into the fresh extraction socket by filling the gap with graft materials come into prominence. Many types of graft materials can be used with or without plasma-rich materials like Plasma Rich Fibrin (PRF). Recent studies have shown that these kind of materials enhance the osteogenic regeneration. Immediate implantation proved that it reduces the total treatment time, prevents the loss of gummy tissues and gains esthetic success.
Part of the book: An Update of Dental Implantology and Biomaterial
In this century, there are two mostly practiced techniques for bone regeneration. These are autogenous bone grafting (ABG) and guided bone regeneration (GBR). It was reported in the late 1970s that platelets have a good regenerative effects. Platelets include growth factors that increase vascularization and collagen production by cell mitosis. Recently, most of the studies have indicated that platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) is a great healing potential for bony and soft tissue that derived from patients own blood. Most beneficial effects of PRF are easily derived directly from patient’s venous blood without any ingredients, and it has a great potential for hard and soft tissue regeneration. PRF has no inflammatory effects and can be used with all kind of graft materials. When used as a membrane, it helps protecting the surgical area to stimulate the healing of soft and bone tissues.
Part of the book: Bone Grafting