The real-world applications of terahertz (THz) technology necessitate versatile adaptive optical components, for example, modulators. In this chapter, we begin with a brief review on different techniques for THz modulation. After that, we introduce the extraordinary features of graphene along with its advantages and disadvantages as channel materials for field effect transistor (FET). We then discuss two types of graphene FET-based THz modulators, one is rigid and another is flexible. The feasibility of the high-quality THz modulators with different graphene FET structures has been successfully demonstrated. It is observed that by tuning the carrier concentration of graphene by electrical gating, the THz modulation can be obtained with relatively large modulation depth, broad width band, and moderate speed. This chapter helps the reader in obtaining guidelines for the proper choice of a specific structure for THz modulator with graphene FET.
Part of the book: Design, Simulation and Construction of Field Effect Transistors