Tinnitus is defined as a sound a person hears that is generated by the body, rather than by outside source. The word tinnitus is derived from the Latin “tinnire” meaning “to ring” and is perceived as ringing, buzzing, or hissing in or around the ear(s). Approximately 50 million Americans are affected, while there is a prevalence of 10% in the United Kingdom among adult population. It has multiple etiologies and is sometimes idiopathic. Tinnitus may vary widely to pitch, loudness, description of sound, special localization, and temporal pattern. Most often, tinnitus is associated with other aural symptoms, such as hearing loss and hyperacusis. Tinnitus may result in sleep disturbances, work impairments, distress. Males are more likely to suffer from tinnitus. In the mechanically demanding and biochemically active environment of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ), therapeutic approaches are capable of restoring joint functionality. TMJ treatments including splints, occlusal adjustments, and jaw exercises have been shown to be more effective than no treatment. The following chapter presents a synopsis of etiology, current treatment methods, and the future of tissue engineering for repairing and/or replacing diseased joint components, specifically the mandibular condyle and TMJ disc.
Part of the book: Management of Tinnitus