Phosphorus (P) eutrophication in the aquatic system is a global problem. With a negative impact on health industry, food security, tourism industry, ecosystem health and economy. The sources of P include both point and nonpoint sources. Controlling P inflow from point sources to aquatic systems have been more manageable, however controlling nonpoint P sources especially agricultural sources remains a challenge. The forms of P include both organic and inorganic. Runoff and soil erosion are the major agents of translocating P to the aquatic system in form of particulate and dissolved P. Excessive P cause growth of algae bloom, anoxic conditions, altering plant species composition and biomass, leading to fish kill, food webs disruption, toxins production and recreational areas degradation. Phosphorus eutrophication mitigation strategies include controlling nutrient loads and ecosystem restoration. Point P sources could be controlled through restructuring industrial layout. Controlling nonpoint nutrient loads need catchment management to focus on farm scale, field scale and catchment scale management as well as employ human intervention which includes ferric dosing, on farm biochar application and flushing and dredging of floor deposits. Ecosystem restoration for eutrophication mitigation involves phytoremediation, wetland restoration, riparian area restoration and river/lake maintenance/restoration. Combination of interventions could be required for successful eutrophication mitigation.
Part of the book: Phosphorus
Nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) eutrophication in marine ecosystems is a global problem. Marine eutrophication has a negative impact on food security, ecosystem health and economy through disruptions in tourism, fisheries and health industries. Both N and P have known point and non-point sources. Control of point sources has been easier than non-point sources particularly agricultural sources for both N and P as well as fossil fuel combustion for N, which remains a major challenge. Implementing mitigation strategies for N has been reported to be effective for P mitigation; however, the converse is not true due to mobility and volatility of N. Excessive N and P cause algae blooms, anoxic conditions, and ocean acidification with these conditions leading to dead zones, fish kill, toxin production, altered plant species diversity, food web disruption, tourism disruption and health issues. Management of N and P pollution includes reduction of leaching from farms through crop selection, timely and precise application of fertilizer and building artificial wetlands, proper management of animal waste, reduction of fossil fuel N emission, mitigating N and P from urban sources and restoration of aquatic ecosystem. Mitigation measures need to focus on dual nutrient strategy for successful N and P reduction.
Part of the book: Monitoring of Marine Pollution