Avian Cardiovascular Disease Characteristics, Causes and Genomics
By Valentina Kubale, Keshia Merry, Georgia Miller, Maria Ruiz Diaz and
Catrin Sian Rutland
Cardiovascular disease is common in avian species and increasing commercial economic losses and demand for healthcare in the household/smallholding veterinary sector has resulted in increased research into these disorders. This in turn has highlighted the importance of breeding, genetic testing and possibilities for future prognostic and diagnostic testing. Research into avian cardiovascular genetics has rapidly accelerated. Previously much work was undertaken in mammals with information extrapolated and transferred to birds. Birds have also been used to model cardiovascular disease and therefore knowledge has become enriched due to this endeavour. Increasingly, the avian genome is being analysed in its own right. This work is assisted by the growing number of avian genomes being published. In 2015, Nature published news on the ‘Bird 10K’ project, which aims to sequence 10,500 extant bird species. By 2018, the Avian Genomes Consortium had published the sequences of 45 species/34 orders. This review investigates a range of avian cardiovascular disorders in order to highlight their pathologies, epidemiology and genetics in addition to avian models of heart disease. With the availability of more reference genomes, increases in the number and magnitude of avian studies and more advanced technologies, the genetics behind avian cardiovascular disorders is being unravelled.
Part of the book: Application of Genetics and Genomics in Poultry Science
Reptilian Skin and Its Special Histological Structures
By Catrin Sian Rutland, Pia Cigler and Valentina Kubale
Reptilian skin is covered with scales forming armor that makes it watertight and enables reptiles to live on land in contrast to amphibians. An important part of the skin is the horny epidermis, with thick stratum corneum in which waxes are arranged in membrane-like layers. In lizards and snakes, the whole skin is covered in overlapping epidermal scales and in turtles and crocodiles in dermal scutes. The cornified part of the epidermis is strengthened by β-keratin and sometimes α-keratin. In crocodiles and many turtles, the outer scale surface consists of β-keratin and the hinge region containing α-keratin. In lizards and snakes, both keratins form continuous layers with the α-keratin below the β-keratin. Some reptiles have developed a sensitive mechanosensory system in the skin. The colors of reptile skin are produced by melanocytes and three types of chromatophores: melanophores, xanthophores, and iridophores. The color patterns may be fixed or the chromatophores may provide rapid color change. Skin from different species of reptiles, turtles (red-eared slider (Trachemys scripta elegans)), snakes (Emerald tree boa (Corallus caninus) and Burmese python (Python bivittatus)), Cuvier’s dwarf caiman (Paleosuchus palpebrosus), lizards (Leopard Gecko (Eublepharis macularius)), and Green iguana (Iguana iguana), were examined with histology techniques and compared.
Part of the book: Veterinary Anatomy and Physiology
The Anatomy, Histology and Physiology of the Healthy and Lame Equine Hoof
By Ramzi Al-Agele, Emily Paul, Valentina Kubale Dvojmoc, Craig J. Sturrock,
Cyril Rauch and Catrin Sian Rutland
Satisfactory investigations of the equine foot appear to be limited by the histo-morphological complexity of internal hoof structures. Foot lameness is considered to be one of the most debilitating pathological disorders of the equine foot. In most species, foot lameness is traditionally linked to hoof deformity, and a set of molecular events have been defined in relation to the disease. So far, there is controversy regarding the incidence of foot lameness in horses, as it is unclear whether it is foot lameness that triggers hoof distortions or vice-versa. In order to develop a better understanding of foot lameness, we review both the healthy and lame foot anatomy, cell biology and vascularisation and using micro-computed tomography show new methods of visualising internal structures within the equine foot.
Part of the book: Veterinary Anatomy and Physiology
The Function of Seven Transmembrane Receptors in the Cardiovascular System and Their Role in the Development of Cardiomyopathy View all chapters
By Valentina Kubale, Ewelina Prozorowska, Kristýna Glocová, Lucy Slater and Catrin Sian Rutland
The G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs, also called seven-transmembrane receptor, 7TMRs, or heptahelical receptor) are a conserved family of seven transmembrane receptors which are essential not only in the healthy heart and blood vessels but also in for treatment and therapy of cardiovascular disease and failure. Heart failure is a global leading cause of morbidity and death and as such understanding 7TMRs, their functions, structures and potential for therapy is essential. This review will investigate the roles of the receptors in the healthy functioning cardiovascular system, and in cardiac disorders with an emphasis in cardiomyopathy. It will also explore the role of autoimmunity and autoantibodies against the G-protein-coupled receptors in cardiomyopathy.
Part of the book: Cardiac Diseases