The overwhelming growth of wireless communication has led to spectrum shortage issues. In recent days, cognitive radio (CR) has risen as a complete solution for the issue. It is an artificial intelligence-based radio which is capable of finding the free spectrum and utilises it by adapting itself to the environment. Hence, searching of the free spectrum becomes the key task of the cognitive radio termed as spectrum sensing. Some malicious users disrupt the decision-making ability of the cognitive radio. Proper selection of the spectrum scheme and decision-making capability of the cognitive reduces the chance of colliding with the primary user. This chapter discusses the suitable spectrum sensing scheme for low noise environment and a trilayered solution to mitigate the primary user emulation attack (PUEA) in the physical layer of the cognitive radio. The tag is generated in three ways. Sequences were generated using DNA and chaotic algorithm. These sequences are then used as the initial seed value for the generation of gold codes. The output of the generator is considered as the authentication tag. This tag is used to identify the malicious user, thereby PUEA is mitigated. Threat-free environment enables the cognitive radio to come up with a precise decision about the spectrum holes.
Part of the book: Cognitive Radio in 4G/5G Wireless Communication Systems