Interventional pediatric cardiology is a specialty of pediatric cardiology that deals specifically with the catheter-based treatment of congenital heart diseases. Cardiac catheterization involves the evaluation and manipulation of the heart and surrounding vessels through catheters place in peripheral vessels. In this chapter we begin by discussing the significant difference between adult and pediatric interventional cardiology. We will discuss basic hemodynamic measurements performed in cardiac catheterization and its application to congenital heart disease. Stent and balloon catheters are briefly discussed. Finally, specific catheter based interventional techniques, indications, and complications for various pediatric congenital heart disease is described.
Part of the book: Congenital Heart Disease
Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) is the most common cardiovascular condition afflicting premature neonates especially those born extremely low birth weight (ELBW). Despite five decades of scientific inquiry which has produced thousands of publications including over 65 randomized controlled trials, cardiologists, neonatologists, and surgeons still cannot answer simple questions such as if, when and how to close to the PDA in ELBW infants. This chapter will examine current evidence in order to answer these fundamental questions. The chapter will specifically focus on transcatheter PDA closure (TCPC), which albeit a new therapy, has displayed great potential to be the best therapeutic option in the future. It is about time that physicians from all sub-specialties come together and integrate the evidence to develop a management algorithm for ELBW infants with hemodynamically significant PDA.
Part of the book: Update on Critical Issues on Infant and Neonatal Care