Antioxidants are the defense system of the body against the damage of reactive oxygen species, which is normally produced during the various physiological processes in the body. There are various sources of these antioxidants like endogenous antioxidant present in the body and exogenous food source. In recent decades, alternate of synthetic food antioxidants by natural ones has fostered interest on vegetable sources and the screening of inexpensive raw materials particularly from the agriculture for identifying new antioxidants. Polyphenols are the significant plant compounds with antioxidant activity, though not the only ones. Some but not only restricted to biological properties such as anticarcinogenicity, antimutagenicity, antiallergenicity, and antiaging activity have been reported for natural and synthetic antioxidants. Among the sources of natural antioxidants, the most important are those coming from routinely consuming vegetables and fruits; however, antioxidant from other plant and agriculture waste should not be ignored.
Part of the book: Antioxidants in Foods and Its Applications
The gut microbiome is comprised of various types of bacteria, fungi, protozoa, and viruses naturally occurring in humans and animals as normal microflora. Gut microorganisms are typically host specific, and their number and type vary according to different host species and environment. Gut microbes contribute directly and/or indirectly to various physiological processes including immune modulation, regulation of various neurotransmitter, and hormones, as well as production of many antioxidants and metabolites. They also play a role as antibiotic, anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic, and anti-carcinogenic agents. Moreover, the ability of gut microbes to attenuate various systemic diseases like coronary heart disease, irritable bowel syndrome, metabolic diseases like diabetes mellitus, and infectious diseases like diarrhea has recently been reported. Current research findings have enough evidence to suggest that gut microbiome is a new organ system mainly due to the microorganisms’ specific biochemical interaction with their hosts and their systemic integration into the host biology. Investigations into the potential ability of gut microbiome to influence metabolism inside their host via biochemical interaction with antibiotics and other drugs has recently been initiated. This chapter specifically focuses on the importance of gut microorganisms as a new organ system.
Part of the book: Parasitology and Microbiology Research