The emerging pollutants (EPs) are considered a global monitoring challenge, present in the environment in very reduced concentrations, and the proper methods for sampling and analysis are still in development. Many published types of research considering the EPs identification only depend on the analytical methodology and a more efficient higher number of EPs. The quantitative determination of the prioritized EPs in water needs advanced and ultra-sensitive instrumental techniques applied in water, water-suspended matter, soil, and biota. The regulatory framework of the water-quality parameters does not often include the microplastics, EPs, and their metabolites; especially, the groundwater water-quality monitoring and control are urgent but not yet achieved. The EPs sources in water are the sewage, industrial, and agricultural waste discard, and the UN estimated that the wastewater produced annually is about 1500 km3, about six times more water than existing in all rivers of the word. In 2015, in China, which has a fast-growing economy, the water is a scarce resource with just 8% of the world’s fresh water to meet the water needs of the 22% of the world’s population.
Part of the book: Emerging Pollutants
Environmental sustainability demands the advancement in water treatment and the use of lighting natural resources. Brazil has one of the most stable and intense solar irradiation in the world. It has to be used not only for energy generation purposes but also and mostly for water treatment, water quality polishment, and furthermore water disinfection. The chapter performs a comparison of different green technologies for water treatment as natural solar irradiation, simulated solar photolysis, solar photo-Fenton with and without hydrogen peroxide addition (solar/Fe), solar photo-Fenton with and without peroxide (solar/Fe/H2O2), titanium oxide-mediated photocatalysis (UV/TiO2), photolysis under UV irradiation, and UV treatment with hydrogen peroxide (UV/H2O2). The chapter describes the solar photodecomposition calculations for pharmaceuticals and the emerging pollutants mostly found in polluted waters, including the decomposition route, kinetics, and process parameters. Many published works to point out the important properties to evaluate catalyzer and semiconductor materials after their use in photodecomposition processes. The essay includes the solar photodecomposition of dyes, carbamazepine, hormones, acetaminophen, antipyrine, bisphenol A, antibiotics, and the photodecomposition by-products. Finally, the chapter presents the synergistic effect between them with the probable mechanism and mineralization degree.
Part of the book: Green Chemistry Applications