Cancer develops from the outgrowth of a clonal population of cells with a genetic pathology to evade cell death and exponential proliferation. It has become a global burden with increasing mortality rates. Lung cancer is a major contributor to cancer fatalities. Conventional therapies have shown advances in treating lung cancer, but the successful eradication of cancer lies in targeting both cancer and cancer stem cells. Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are a ration of cells found within the tumour bulk, capable of cancer initiation, therapy resistance, metastasis and cancer relapse. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has proven effective in treating lung cancer. PDT exerts selective cell death mechanisms toward cancerous cells. With the use of a photosensitizer (PS) which becomes excited upon irradiation with laser light at a specific wavelength, the PS forms reactive oxygen species (ROS) in turn killing neoplastic cells. Leading therapeutic sequel can be obtained by transcending PDT though combination therapies such as immunotherapy and nanotechnology which will enable PDT to target lung CSCs preventing lung cancer recurrence.
Part of the book: Lung Cancer