Ionic liquids are expected to show applicability as novel lubricants. However, halogen anion-based ionic liquids cause severe corrosive wear. To preclude this, this chapter describes the use of halogen-free anion-based ionic liquids as lubricants. The study investigated the tribological performances and lubricating mechanisms of sulfur, phosphorus, and cyanoanion-based ionic liquids. Sulfur and phosphorus anion-based ionic liquids formed reaction films on worn surfaces; the sulfur- and phosphorus-containing films exhibited low-friction coefficients and specific wear rates, respectively. The steric hindrance of the ionic liquids affected their tribochemical reaction behaviors. Cyanoanion-based ionic liquids also showed low-friction coefficients; however, their values were higher than those of halogen anion-based ionic liquids. To achieve low friction, tribochemical reaction of the ionic liquids and adsorption of anions on the worn surface were required. The stability of the cyanoanion-based ionic liquids against the nascent steel surface was related to the thermal stability. These halogen-free anion-based ionic liquids and formed tribolayer films differ in physical and chemical properties. When these ionic liquids are applied as lubricants in the industry, it is important to choose ionic liquids depending on the sliding conditions.
Part of the book: Recent Advances in Ionic Liquids