The chapter summarizes an author’s research in the field of child neuropsychology, devoted to the dynamics of non-verbal visual gnosis in 365 children aged 4–6 with typical development. Data from a study of perceptual operations in difficult conditions (a sample to identify incomplete images), the deficits in which they are considered as a predictor of dyslexia, are analyzed. Against the backdrop of a predominantly analytical (left brain) strategy in the processing of visual incentives, a progressive improvement in the holistic (right brain) strategy was also noted, especially in children aged 6. The positive dynamics of identifying visual stimuli in difficult conditions by integrating distinct signs in the 4–6-year period is explained both by the activation of the holistic processing strategy and by the increasing participation of the prefrontal cortex in the functioning of the complex forms of non-verbal visual gnosis.
Part of the book: Prefrontal Cortex
In recent years, child neuropsychology has paid special attention to ontogenesis and trends in the development of practical functions during the preschool period, given their relationship to practical skills and children’s readiness to learn. On the other hand, the dynamics of complex types of praxis is an indicator of the integration between the brain regions responsible for the perception, programming and recoding of motor patterns. The article presents a comparative analysis of data from a study of two types of praxis functions (dynamic praxis and spatial postural praxis) in children with typical development in the period 4–6 years. The specificity of the performance of neuropsychological tests is an indicator of the functioning and the degree of neuronal connectivity of the parietal and premotor regions of the left hemisphere. The data from the study show a similar trend in the dynamics of the studied functions and the influence on them of three independent factors: age, social conditions (type of settlement) and gender. Significant improvement in the performance of the tasks is observed in children at the age of 6, which is a reason to consider this age as critical for the maturation and neurophysiological connectivity of the structures of the parietal and premotor regions. The assessment of complex types of praxis in this period is an objective indicator of the neuropsychological development of children and has an indisputable prognostic effect for future learning disorders.
Part of the book: Cerebral and Cerebellar Cortex