After a successful heart transplantation, fundamental keys to achieve good results in the long term are to establish immunosuppressive therapy in the postoperative period in an appropriate manner and to ensure continuity of follow-ups. Despite the fact that these stages are maintained perfectly, patients may face one or more rejection episodes. T-cell-mediated acute cellular rejection of the cardiac allograft has well-established treatment algorithms, whereas antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) is challenging to diagnose, and its treatment varies between centers. Investigators reported that AMR is among the most important factors to improving long-term outcomes. Improved understanding of the roles of acute and chronic AMR has evolved in recent years following a major progress in the technical ability to detect and quantify recipient antihuman leukocyte antigen (HLA) antibody production. Recently, a study of the immunobiology of B cells and plasma cells that pertains to allograft rejection and tolerance has emerged. There are some questions regarding the classification of AMR, the diagnostic approaches, and the treatment strategies for managing. In this chapter, we are discuss the effector mechanisms that are used by antibodies to eliminate antigens and clinical experience about AMR and its treatment with a discussion about the latest articles.
Part of the book: Heart Transplantation