The clavulanic acid derived by fermentation of Streptomyces clavuligerus and possessed the capability to inactivate a broad range of β-lactamase enzymes. A complex physicochemical process involves the binding of clavulanic acid to β-lactamases in which clavulanic acid itself deplete irreversibly along with β-lactamase enzyme rendering amoxicillin spared which otherwise would hydrolyze by an enzyme. It is therefore termed as ‘suicide ‘inhibitor for β-lactamases. We discussed here pharmacokinetic parameters and identified factors responsible for the variability of absorption of clavulanic acid. The results based on individual plasma concentration-time curve of amoxicillin and clavulanic acid in an open, randomized, two-way crossover study involving 10 healthy male subjects administered with two amoxiclav formulations.
Part of the book: Medicinal Chemistry
Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a contagious viral infection which is caused by foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV). The disease appears in cloven-footed animals. Symptoms of the disease are abrupt manifestation of sores on the mouth, nose, feet, etc. Nowadays the control and treatment of FMDVare becoming a worldwide economic problem and challenge for the society. Currently, there is no particular treatment available for FMDV, as well as the limitations and disadvantages in the use of vaccines divert the focus of researchers toward natural sources like plant extracts which possess potential antiviral activity. Various researches documented in the literature demonstrated various plant extracts with antiviral potency against FMDV. In the current chapter, we discussed about FMDV and its possible treatment with plant extracts.
Part of the book: Veterinary Medicine and Pharmaceuticals