Mesenchymal stem cells are considered as an attractive tool for tissue regeneration. Almost all dental tissues contain a population of MSC-like cells, which were extensively studied within the last few years. Besides their ability to differentiate into different cell types, dental MSCs also possess strong immunomodulatory properties. Dental MSCs modulate both innate and adaptive immune response and influence the activity of almost all components of the immune system. The interaction between dental MSCs and the immune system is reciprocal because immunomodulatory activity of MSCs is strongly regulated by cytokines produced by immune cells. MSCs isolated from inflamed tissues might exhibit impaired immunomodulatory capacity, suggesting a potential role of these cells in inflammatory diseases and particularly periodontitis. Recent studies suggest that immunomodulatory properties of MSCs can also play an important role in their tissue regenerative capacity. The therapeutic effects of MSCs, including their immunomodulatory capacity, are largely explained by their tropic activity, including production of immunomodulatory proteins and growth factors. Summarizing, dental MSCs play an important role in tissue homeostasis under healthy and diseased conditions.
Part of the book: Periodontology and Dental Implantology