Power semiconductor modules are the core components in power-train system of hybrid and electric vehicles (HEV/EV). With the global interests and efforts to popularize HEV/EV, automotive module has become one of the fast growing sectors of power semiconductor industry. However, the comprehensive requirements in power, frequency, efficiency, robustness, reliability, weight, volume, and cost of automotive module are stringent than industrial products due to extremely high standards of vehicle safety and harsh environment. The development of automotive power module is facing comprehensive challenges in designing of structure, material, and assembly technology. In this chapter, the status and trend of power semiconductor module packaging for HEV/EV are investigated. Firstly, the functionality of power electronics and module in HEV/EV power-train system, as well as the performance requirements by automotive industry, is addressed. A general overview of HEV/EV module design and manufacturing is discussed. Then, the typical state-of-the-art commercial and custom HEV/EV power modules are reviewed and evaluated. Lastly, the packaging trends of automotive module are investigated. The advanced assembly concept and technology are beneficial to thermal management, minimized parasitic parameters, enhancement of thermal and mechanical reliability, and the reduction of weight, volume, and cost.
Part of the book: Modeling and Simulation for Electric Vehicle Applications
Ionic liquids have emerged as a new class of solvents for ionic polymerization due to their low volatility, chemical stability, high conductivity, wide electrochemical window. The advantages and limitations of application of ionic liquids as solvents for ionic polymerization processes are critically discussed in this chapter. The field of cationic polymerization in ionic liquid has undergone rapid growth in recent years. The most important types of cationic monomers, such as styrene and its derivatives, vinyl ethers and isobutylene have been polymerized in ionic liquids; even undergo living polymerization. Corresponding elementary reactions of cationic polymerization in ionic liquids were proposed. Methyl methacrylate and styrene can undergo anionic polymerization in ionic liquids. However, ionic liquids seem unsuitable solvents for anionic polymerization.
Part of the book: Recent Advances in Ionic Liquids