The burning problems like scarcity of food for ever-growing human population in the present world are addressed by adapting various methods for production of protein, carbohydrate, oils and other food materials. One of the methods to produce high amount of food is integrated farming including rice-aquaculture farming, which produces protein and carbohydrate as major components besides others. Rice-aquaculture farming produces grain (carbohydrate) and animal protein without affecting the quality and quantity of rice yield on the same piece of land and renders additional financial gain besides main crop (rice) like conventional monoculture. The aquatic species grown in the integrated culture are mainly distinct types of fishes, selected crustaceans and other selected species. Profitable rice-aquaculture integrated farming is popular in Asian countries than in Western countries. However, the integrated rice-aquaculture farming has its own limitations. The type of methods, culture species, influencing factors, and pros and cons of rice-aquaculture integrated farming are discussed in the present chapter.
Part of the book: Aquaculture
Crustaceans have become the most popular proteinacious foods to meet the food demand of ever growing human population in the World. But, the culturing of crustacean species has many problems, including limited availability of quality seed. Out of all conventional methods practiced to increase seed of good quality and quantity, manipulation of the endocrine system of brood stock is found to be one of the best methods. Regulation of crustacean reproduction is under the control of many hormones and factors. The eyestalk hormones, namely gonad/vitellogenin-inhibiting hormone (VIH) and mandibular organ inhibiting hormone (MOIH) show negative effects on maturation, whereas the other eyestalk hormones show mixed effects on maturation. The non-eyestalk hormones namely gonad stimulating hormone (GSH), methyl farnesoate (MF) and ecdysteroids are ovarian maturation inducers in crustaceans. The pros and cons of endocrine manipulation in crustaceans are discussed in this chapter.
Part of the book: Comparative Endocrinology of Animals