Staphylococcus aureus is an emerging pathogen from dairy animals’ mammary glands. Among various risk factors associated with this pathogen are unhygienic milking procedures, improper preventive techniques, and lack of germicidal teat dipping before and after milking. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus, coagulase positive S. aureus, vancomycin-resistant S. aureus, and biofilm-producing S. aureus are common strains of S. aureus being isolated from dairy milk these days. They have huge economic and public health concerns. Trials of antibiotic susceptibility proposed variable responses, while drug modulation and drug synergistic proved to be hope for its treatment. Some of the plant derivative, phages, and nanoparticles are non-antibiotic sources to treat S. aureus. Various attempts to treat S. aureus at the world level have been carried out but require more researches to be undertaken in order to prevent it. The chapter concludes that S. aureus from dairy needs equal attention as is given to S. aureus from the human origin, and researches are required to probe solutions.
Part of the book: Staphylococcus Aureus
Milk composition and production varies from species to species, reflecting its diversified benefits on health. Lipids from caprine and ovine milk are anti-obesity and anti-atherogenic while prebiotic in the case of caprine. Higher contents of selenium from caprine and iron from camel milk play a role in immune system and oxygen transport system, respectively, whereas enriched vitamins like riboflavin, folic acid, B6, vitamin A of bovine, and foliate of cattle are effective in the synthesis of hemoglobin, and high niacin content of caprine is anti-cancerous. Camel milk is found to have characteristics of anti-carcinogenic, antidiabetic, and autoimmune therapeutic. Various processing techniques like pasteurization, skim milk powder processing, and ultra-high temperature processing are necessary for safe provision of milk to meet consumers’ demand. Change in flavor, loss of micronutrients, biofilm production, and spore-forming bacteria are prominent challenges during processing. Antimicrobial resistance and disease conditions are exaggerating factors of milk deterioration with respect to quality and quantity. Preclinical trials like somatic cell count, California mastitis test, proteomic analysis, Raman spectroscopy-based analysis, and X-ray fluorescence analysis are helpful in avoiding the spread of disease and controlling of economic losses. This chapter focuses differential functions of bioactive of milk, issues arising during processing techniques, and preclinical studies of milk for safer production and consumption of milk.
Part of the book: Milk Production, Processing and Marketing
Leptospirosis is a communicable disease at farms that results in abortion and pathological changes in animals and human respectively. Disease is majorly spreading through indirect contact with contaminated urine material. The causative agent belongs to Leptospira genus having 21 species, 25 serogroups, and 250 serovars. The prevalence noted at world level is counted to be 41.39% with 30.11% in Asia, 25.62% in Africa, and 46.42% in South Africa. The virulence is attributed to Loa22 protein which is the first protein identified as essential virulence factor. Pathogenesis involves vasculitis following which are direct cytotoxicity and immunological injury resulting in renal failure. Direct examination, PCR, isothermal methods, microscopic agglutination test (MAT) and IgM enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) are diagnostic approaches for leptospirosis. The MAT is a gold standard test for leptospirosis identification. Doxycycline and azithromycin were used as drugs against leptospirosis in mild and severe cases of leptospirosis. Further studies are needed regarding identification, treatment, and effective vaccination.
Part of the book: Bacterial Cattle Diseases