Dengue Fever: A General Perspective
By Muhammad Kashif Zahoor, Azhar Rasul, Muhammad Asif Zahoor,
Iqra Sarfraz, Muhammad Zulhussnain, Rizwan Rasool, Humara Naz
Majeed, Farhat Jabeen and Kanwal Ranian
Dengue Fever or commonly known as Dengue, a mosquito-borne arboviral infection has emerged as havoc around the globe. Annually, about 50 million infections are reported, resulting in 22,000 deaths and almost 2.5 billion people are reported living at risk. Dengue infection is caused by Dengue Virus (DENV), which is a member of genus Flavivirus and comprised of ten proteins; three proteins, capsid (C), membrane (M), and envelope (E), play structural role and seven are identified as non-structural that direct DENV replication. Four distinct serotypes: DENV-1, DENV-2, DENV-3 and DENV-4 are transmitted via Aedes mosquitoes. Clinically, Dengue patients can be categorized into three groups according to WHO 2009 revised classification. Typical symptoms of dengue include: extreme fatigue; sudden fever (from 3-7 days), headache, joint, muscle, and back pain; vomiting and diarrhea, appetite loss; skin rash along minor bleeding. Aedes aegypti is geographically distributed in tropical areas and breeds in artificially filled water containers i.e. drums, tyres, flower vases plastic food containers, tin cans, etc. Due to four viral serotypes and non-availability of the model animal for dengue, producing vaccines is a challenging task. Thus, Dengue can be managed using various vector control strategies through physical, chemical and biological means.
Part of the book: Dengue Fever
Chemical Biology Toolsets for Drug Discovery and Target Identification
By Ammara Riaz, Azhar Rasul, Iqra Sarfraz, Javaria Nawaz, Ayesha Sadiqa, Rabia Zara, Samreen Gul Khan and Zeliha Selamoglu
Chemical biology is the scientific discipline that deals with the application of chemical techniques and often small molecules produced through synthetic chemistry, to the manipulation and study of biological systems. Its working framework ranges from simple chemical entities to complex drugs by employing the principles of biological origin. This chapter particularly focuses on the principles and working models of chemical biology to discover new drug leads. Drug discovery is an extensive and multifaceted complex process. Chemical biology uses both natural and synthetic compounds with the best therapeutic potential and verifies them by employing the best possible chemical toolsets. Screening of compounds is done by the use of phenotypic as well as the target-based screening to identify and characterize the potent hits. After the identification of target, it is characterized, and validated by extensive testing. The next step is the validation of hits obtained, and lead compounds are tested in clinical trials before introducing them for commercial application.
Part of the book: Cheminformatics and its Applications