Sorghum vulgare L. plants when exposed to cadmium nitrate with the concentrations of 70 and 150 ppm per kg of soil for 90 days exhibited phytotoxic responses. The observations of specific responses were dependent on treatment combinations. The significant hazardous effects and oxidative damage of cadmium nitrate (70 and 150 ppm) were evident by increased MDA content and hydrogen peroxide content. However, these responses were reversed by exogenous application of putrescine (2.5 and 5.0 mM) and mycorrhiza (Glomus; 150 inoculants per kg of soil), more so, in their combined treatment, at different DAS. But combined treatment of putrescine and mycorrhiza enhanced the stability of sorghum by reducing the ROS production in plant cells. On the basis of the data obtained, it is concluded that plants responded up to 70 ppm cadmium nitrate with stress-induced responses, which were ameliorated by combined application of putrescine and Glomus mycorrhiza.
Part of the book: Heavy Metals
Listeria monocytogenes is still the point to be broken by the scientists. In 1967, scientists Gray and Killinger demonstrated, about the presence of Listeria monocytogenes and Listeriosis in humans and cattle. Listeria monocytogenes was first described by Murray et al., who named it Bacterium Monocytogenes because of a characteristic monocytosis found in infected laboratory rabbits and guinea pigs. In 1927, it was renamed Listerella hepatolytica by Pirie who gave its present name in 1940. The first confirmed isolations of the bacterium from infected individuals, following its initial description, were made in 1929 by Gill from sheep and by Nyfeldt from humans. Since then, sporadic cases of listeriosis, have been reported, often in workers in contact with diseased animals. The invasion of peripheral nerve cells and rapid entry into the brain is postulated as a unique characteristic of its virulence.
Part of the book: Listeria Monocytogenes