Sickle cell nephopathy (SCN) begins early in childhood from failure of urinary concentration (hyposthenuria), albuminuria to hyperfiltration, hematuria and progression to falling glomerular filtration to end-stage renal disease and increased mortality. Renal involvement is more severe in homozygous individuals (HbSS) than in compound heterozygous patients (HbSC). The pathogenesis of SCN is multifactorial from hypoxia, acidosis, hemolysis, ischemia-reperfusion injury and albuminuria. The clinical manifestations depend on whether the main pathology is tubular, glomerular or a mixture of both abnormalities. This chapter offers a critical review of the recent literature and will highlight the pathophysiology, epidemiology, clinical manifestations and management of sickle cell nephropathy with particular focus on the major advance in the early diagnosis. Learning points: For SCN, the onset of hyperfiltration and albuminuria in infants and childhood is an opportunity to intervene early. There is no diagnostic markertest capable of detecting the onset of these changes. Moreover there is no reliable therapeutic agent to prevent or halt early changes due to SCN. The development of a marker of renal impairment in SCD such as such as Cystatin C assay if validated may be appropriate for wider clinical application.
Part of the book: Hematology