Influenza infection is usually a self-limiting and suddenly life-threatening disease. Seasonal influenza causes severe clinical symptoms and almost subsides within 7 days in patients without severe illness, following no complications of pneumonia and encephalitis. Influenza A (H1N1) pdm09 brought the disaster including many deaths. We cannot make differential diagnosis between seasonal and pandemic influenza adequately in a pre-pandemic state. Seasonal influenza displaces suddenly pandemic, and we necessarily establish a standard treatment for influenza viral infection in routine work. If antiviral therapy would not be effective for patients with influenza viruses in an early period of illness, further investigations would be proceeded concerning three points: mutations of influenza viruses resistant to neuraminidase inhibitors (NAIs), concomitant diseases of patients, and a new pandemic virus. If the systemic procedure would be functioned, we are able to reduce individually burden of patients with severe clinical symptoms and leading complications and socially delay widespread of pandemic and plan for the streamline management of pandemic documents.
Part of the book: Influenza
Avian influenza viruses are shared among wild birds and sometimes are shed from wild birds to domestic poultry and backyard domestic animals. Usually avian influenza viruses infect wild birds as asymptomatic or low pathogenesis and are stocked in birds, water, and soil. Accumulation of genetic changes of influenza viruses in hosts diversities the pathogenesis to hosts described as highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses and low pathogenic avian influenza viruses. Highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses being categorized among influenza A subtype viruses (H5, H7, H9) and different from low pathogenic avian influenza viruses cause severe illness and sudden increased deaths of wild birds, chicken, or other poultry. These infect from avian to humans. The adequate approaches of information and action for appearance of HPAI and LPAI viral infections in flock may prohibit the outbreak of avian to humans, which are mostly including quarantine of the infected area of the flock from surrounding laboratory tests for HPAI and LPAI viruses in early illness and antiviral treatments in humans.
Part of the book: Viruses