Hemorrhagic shock is a type of hypovolemic shock, where intravascular blood loss and consequent alterations in the cell due to the hypoxia result in tissue and organ dysfunction, leading to death, once a certain threshold level is exceeded. Inadequate oxygen delivery results with Na/K ATPase pump dysfunction and cell death by this way, but erythrocytes do not use oxygen for their survival. A depolarizing protein can be a reason under in vivo conditions. In severe injury, rapid loss of 25% and more blood volume cause irreversible shock. For blood restoration, crystalloid solutions temporarily provide a practical approach, but they cannot replace the lost erythrocyte mass occurred due to bleeding, and they have no therapeutic value. Excessive use causes several problems, especially coagulopathy and increases the mortality risk. The prompt transfer of patient to an ultimate center for treatment, use of blood and blood products in the treatment, and a swift restoration of hemorrhage source are essential. Tourniquet use in the extremities and balloon occlusion of the aorta can be lifesaving.
Part of the book: Clinical Management of Shock