The oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) is a key cathode reaction in fuel cells. Due to the sluggish kinetics of the ORR, various kinds of catalysts have been developed to compensate for the shortcomings of the cathode reaction. Carbon materials are considered ideal cathode catalysts. In particular, heteroatom doping is essential to achieve an excellent ORR activity. Interestingly, doping trace amounts of metals in carbon materials plays an important role in enhancing the electrocatalytic activities. This chapter describes the recent advancements with regard to heteroatom-doped carbons and discusses the active sites decorated in the carbon matrix in terms of their configurations and contents, as well as their effectiveness in boosting the ORR performance. Furthermore, trace metal residues and metal-free catalysts for the ORR are clarified.
Part of the book: Electrocatalysts for Fuel Cells and Hydrogen Evolution
Heteroatom (metal and nonmetal) doping is essential to achieve excellent oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) activity of carbon materials. Among the heteroatoms that have been studied to date, sulfur (S) doping, including metal sulfides and sulfur atoms, has attracted tremendous attention. Since S-doping can modify spin density distributions around the metal centers as well as the synergistic effect between S and other doped heteroatoms, the S-C bond and metal sulfides can function as important ORR active sites. Furthermore, the S-doped hybrid sample shows a small charge-transfer resistance. Therefore, S-doping contributes to the superior ORR performance. This chapter describes the recent advancements of S-doped carbon materials, and their development in the area of ORR with regard to components, structures, and their ORR activities of S-related species.
Part of the book: Chalcogen Chemistry