Supercapacitors are a class of energy storage devices that store energy by either ionic adsorption via an electrochemical double layer capacitive process or fast surface redox reaction via a pseudocapacitive process. Supercapacitors display fast charging and discharging performance and excellent chemical stability, which fill the gap between high energy density batteries and high-power-density electrostatic capacitors. In this book chapter, the authors have presented the current studies on improving the capacitive storage capacity of various electrode materials for supercapacitors, mainly focusing on the metal oxide electrode materials. In particular, the approaches that mathematically simulate the behavior of interaction between electrode materials and charge carriers subject to potentiodynamic conditions (e.g., cyclic voltammetry) have been described. These include a general relationship between current and voltage to describe overall electrokinetics during the charge transfer process and a more comprehensive numerical modeling that studies ionic transport and electrokinetics within a spherical solid particle. The two aforementioned types of mathematical analyses can provide fundamental understanding of the parameters governing the electrode reaction and mass transfer in the electrode material, and thus shed light on how to improve the storage capacity of supercapacitors.
Part of the book: Supercapacitors