The concept and method of in-line sputtering and selenization become the industrial standard for Cu-III-VI2 solar cell fabrication, but it is a difficult work to control and predict the electrical and optical performances, which are closely related to the chemical composition of the film. This chapter addresses the material design, device design, and process design using chemical compositions relating parameters. Compositional variation leads to change in the poisson equation, current equation and continuity equation governing the device design. To make the device design much realistic and meaningful, we have to build a model that relates the opto-electrical performance to the chemical composition of the film. The material and device structural parameters are input into the process simulation to give a complete process control parameters and method. We calculated neutral defect concentrations of non-stoichiometric CuMSe2 (M-In, Ga) under the specific atomic chemical potential conditions. The electrical and optical performance has also been investigated for the development of full function analytical solar cell simulator. Module instability and their origins are listed. After that progress of CZTS (Cu2ZnS4) is briefed on the future work of CIGS (CuInGaSe2). The future prospects regarding the development of CIGS thin-film solar cells (TFSCs) have also been discussed.
Part of the book: Emerging Solar Energy Materials